The highly anticipated fourth edition of the must-have ECG interpretation resource is now available. The Complete Guide to ECGs has been developed as a unique and practical means for physicians, physicians-in-training, and other medical professionals to improve their ECG interpretation skills. The highly interactive format and comprehensive scope of information are also ideally suited for physicians preparing for the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Cardiovascular Disease or Internal Medicine Board Exams, the American College of Cardiology ECG proficiency test, and other exams requiring ECG interpretation.
Dr. Joseph Esherick Monthly Blog - May 2011
Initiation of statins during the acute period has been shown to be beneficial during an acute coronary syndrome and immediately following an ischemic stroke. [1,2,3] It is believed that statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, have pleiotropic properties that have anti-inflammatory effects, improve endothelial function and inhibit the body’s thrombogenic response. The properties are in addition to the lipid lowering effects of statins. These pleiotropic effects are felt to be the principal mechanism by which statins decrease recurrent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events when started acutely during an acute coronary syndrome or immediately after an ischemic stroke. Statins have also been shown in two randomized controlled trials to decrease the incidence of peri-procedural myocardial infarction if started soon before percutaneous coronary intervention or before major vascular surgery. [4,5]
The leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the early identification and appropriate management of acute coronary syndrome is essential for all hospital-based physicians. The American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association have recently updated their practice guidelines on the management of patients with unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)1.
This blog will focus on the primary changes in the management of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. The Level 1 recommendations are that patients with definite UA/NSTEMI at medium to high risk should receive 325 mg of aspirin and a second antiplatelet agent on presentation. Dual antiplatelets should be given regardless of whether an invasive or conservative strategy is chosen. The second antiplatelet agent could be either a loading dose of clopidogrel, prasugrel, or a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor (preferably eptifibatide or tirofiban). The major change in the recommendations is that dual antiplatelet therapy is now routinely recommended upstream of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In patients undergoing PCI, both aspirin and a thienopyridine, clopidogrel or prasugrel, should be continued for at least 12 months. For those treated conservatively, dual antiplatelet therapy should continue for at least 1 month and ideally for 1 year.